aside ISRAEL -PALESTINE CONFLICT FROM 1914-1967

ottomanempire18002

The best resource for a timeline regarding the Israeli- Palestine conflict, that I found is from PBS:

1914 -“By 1914, there were about forty Jewish settlements in Palestine, owning about 100,000 acres. According to Justin McCarthy, in his study of the population of Palestine, the total population at that time was 722,000, of whom approximately 60,000 were Jews.

OTTOMAN EMPIRE
OTTOMAN EMPIRE

“The Ottoman Empire entered WWI in November 1914 on the side of Germany and Austria, and against England and Russia.”

!915-1916 – “An Arab force, recruited partly from Bedouin of western Arabia and partly from prisoners or deserters from the Ottoman army, fought alongside the allied forces in the occupation of Palestine and Syria. This movement had followed correspondence between the British (McMahon) and Hysayn, acting in concert with Arab nationalistic groups, in which the British  had encouraged Arab hopes of independence.”

1916-1917-“An Anglo-French agreement of 1916, while accepting the principle of Arab independence laid down in the correspondence with the Sharif Husayn, divided the area into zones of permanent influence (the Sykes-Picot Agreement, May 1916); and a British document of 1917, the Balfour Declaration, stated that the government viewed with favor the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, provided this did not prejudice the civil and religious rights of the other inhabitants of the country.”

OTTOMAN EMPIRE
OTTOMAN EMPIRE

1917-1918 -On June 28, 1917, General Allenby was appointed commander of the British army in the Middle East, and he mounted an attack aimed at breaking the Turkish lines in Palestine and Syria and arriving at the rear of Turks in Anatolia. On October 31, 1917, he captured Beersheba and moved northwards, whilst the Germans and Turks were attempting to create a line of defense around Jerusalem. Allenby quickly pressed forward towards the north in two columns passing through the Judean desert. He engaged the joint Turkish- German army in a fierce battle which took place to the west of Jerusalem on December 8, 9 of 1917 and, having defeated them, he approached Jerusalem, dismounted his horse and entered the Holy City on foot, to be welcomed by its inhabitants. In September 1918, the other parts of Palestine were occupied.”

“A new era then began in Palestine. Taken out of Ottoman hands, it entered into the British Mandate period, which continued for the next thirty years.”

British Mandate from 1920-1948

1920- “The League of Nations divided the territory (formerly under Ottoman rule) into new entities, called mandates. The mandated would be administered like trusts by the British and the French, under supervision of the League, until such time as the inhabitants were believed by League members to be ready for independence and self government.”

The mandate territories were Syria and Lebanon, awarded to France; Iraq, awarded to Britain; and a new entity called Palestine, which was also placed under British control. Palestine, as defined for the first time in modern history…included the land on both sides of the Jordan River and encompassed the present-day countries of Israel and Jordan.”

ISTANBUL MARKET IN OTTOMAN EMPIRE
ISTANBUL MARKET IN OTTOMAN EMPIRE

1921-1922 – “Out of the broad region known as Palestine, Britain carved two political entities in 1921. One entity consisted of the area of Palestine east of the Jordan River; it was named the “Emirate of Transjordan.” and later simply “Jordan”…In the western half of Palestine, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, Palestinian Arabs and Zionist Jews wrestled for control under the British umbrella.”

“Note: The League of Nations ratified the Mandate on July 24, 1922. ”

1947-“On February 14, 1947, the British cabinet decided, in effect, to wash its hands of Palestine and dump the problem in the lap of the United Nations.”

OTTOMAN EMPIRE
OTTOMAN EMPIRE

On November 29, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly voted 33 to 13 with 10 abstentions to partition western Palestine into two states — one for the Jews, which would consist of the Negev Desert, the coastal plain between Tel Aviv and Haifa, and parts of the northern Galilee, and the other for the Palestinian Arabs, which would consist primarily of the West Bank of the Jordan, the Gaza District, Jaffa, and the Arav sectors of the Galilee. Jerusalem, cherished by both Muslims and Jews as a holy city, was to become an international enclave under U.N. trusteeship.”

The Zionist, then led by David Ben-Gurion, accepted this partition plan, even though they had always dreamed of controlling all of western Palestine and Jerusalem. The Palestinian Arabs and the surrounding Arab states rejected the partition proposal. They felt that Palestine was all theirs, that the Jews were a foreign implant foisted upon them, and that they had the strength to drive them out.”

END OF SIX DAY WAR
END OF SIX DAY WAR

Israel, Jordan & Egypt 1948- 1967

1948-1949-“On May 14, the Jewish community declared its independence as the State of Israel, and this was immediately recognized by the United States and Russia, and Egyptian, Jordanian, Iraqi, Syrian and Lebanese forces moved into the mainly Arab parts of the country. In a situation where there were no fixed frontiers or clear divisions of population, fighting took place between the new Israeli army and those of the Arab states, and in four campaigns interrupted by cease-fires, Israel was able to occupy the greater part of the country.”

Gamal Abdel Nasser Former President of Egypt 1918-1970
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Former President of Egypt 1918-1970

1949-1956-“In the course of that war, the Zionists not only managed to hold all the areas assigned to them by the United Nations (in 1947) but to seize part of the land designated for the Palestinian state as well. The other areas designated for the Palestinians by the United Nations were taken by Jordan and Egypt; Jordan annexed the West Bank, while Egypt assumed control of the Gaza District. “The armistice agreements were not peace treaties and did not provide for many features that normally govern the relations between neighboring states at peace with each other, such as diplomatic and trade ties. During the following years Arab leaders made abundantly clear their uniform view that the armistice accords were merely elaborate cease-fire agreements, implicitly temporary and qualitatively different from and well short of full peace treaties.”

ALBERT EINSTEIN AND ISRAEL ORIME MINISTER BEN GURION 1948-1954
ALBERT EINSTEIN AND ISRAEL PRIME MINISTER BEN GURION 1948-1954

“At the end of hostilities early in 1949, the United Nations estimated that there were 726,000 Arab refugees from Israeli-controlled territories, about 70 percent of the Arab population of Palestine. The exact number is difficult to determine because it is impossible to know the true number of Arab illegals living in Palestine when the war broke out and the number of Bedouin who had become refugees. A fugure of about 600,000 to 760,000 is probably more accurate. The essential reality of the Israeli- Arab relations during 1949- 1956 was …unremitting, if generally low key, conflict. Leaders and news media on both sides regularly voiced propaganda and traded threats, and the Arab world closed ranks in waging massive political warfare against Israel, regarding it as a pariah state and attempting to persuade the rest of the world to follow suit. The Arabs refused to recognize Israel’s existence or right to exist- leaders and writers avoided using the word “Israel,” maps left it blank or called it Palestine.”

TURKS IN WWI
TURKS IN WWI

“A comprehensive Arab economic boycott was imposed, including the closure by Egypt of the Suez Canal (July 26, 1956) and the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping and to specific goods (such as oil) bound for Israel, carried on third-country vessels, and a ban on deals with companies doing business with Israel.”

“The most grinding and visible expressions of animosity were border clashes. Most of the tension along the frontiers resulted from Arab infiltration. The daily trespassing and shooting incidents, the occasional murder of Israelis, and the retaliations generated fresh hostility which gradually built up to a crescendo in the second Arab-Israeli war of 1956.”

KING FAROUK
KING FAROUK

In October (29-30, 1956)Israeli forces invaded Egypt and moved towards the Suez Canal. In accordance with their previous agreement, Britain and France sent an ultimatum to both Israel and Egypt to withdraw from the Canal Zone, and (Egyptian President) “Abd al-Nasir’s” refusal gave a pretext for British and French forces to attack and occupy part of the zone… Under American and Soviet pressure, and faced with worldwide hostility and the danger of financial collapse, the three forces (Britain, France and Israel)withdrew.” The U.N. Emergency Force (UNEF), which was to supervise the truce, began arriving on December 4, 1956. Britain and France completed the withdrawal on December 23, handing over their positions to UNEF. Though Israel agreed to withdraw on November 8, it did not do so until March 8, 1957- and then only after the United States committed itself to standing by Israel’s right of passage though the Gulf of Aqaba, ensuring that Gaza was not used again for launching guerilla attacks against it.  On Israel’s insistence UNEF troops were posted exclusively in Gaza and the Gulf of Aqaba region to safeguard Israeli shipping. Egypt was allowed to return to Gaza to administer it.”

ISRAELI PRESIDENT CHAIM WEIZMANN (CENTRE), WITH JAMES (R) MACDONALD & COMMANDER & MRS. GOLDBERG (L);
ISRAELI PRESIDENT CHAIM WEIZMANN (CENTRE), WITH JAMES (R) MACDONALD & COMMANDER & MRS. GOLDBERG (L);

1956-1967-“The political outcome of the war was a clear and substantial radicalization of the conflict. Nasser and other Arab leaders began to speak openly of the need for a ‘third round’ (after 1948 & 1956), in which Israel would be destroyed. In a letter to Hussein (King of Jordan) on March 13, 1961, Nasser wrote: ‘On…Israel, we believe that the evil introduced into the heart of the Arab world must be uprooted.'”

1967 “(Egyptian President) Gamel Abdul Nasser asked the United Nations to withdraw the forces which had been stationed on the frontier with Israel since the Suez War of 1956, and when this was done he closed the straits of Aqaba to Israeli shipping… As tension mounted, Jordan and Syria made military agreements with Egypt.”

June 1967: Israeli Centurion tank corps prepare for battle during the Six-Day War. (Photo by Three Lions/Getty Images)
June 1967: Israeli Centurion tank corps prepare for battle during the Six-Day War. (Photo by Three Lions/Getty Images)

1967 Six Day War

1967- “In June, 1967, Israel launched a preemptive strike against Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, after Nasser had declared his intention to annihilate the Jewish state and forged military alliances with Syria and Jordan for that purpose, building up troop concentrations along his border with Israel and blockading shipping to the Israeli port of Eilat. The six- day war that followed Israel’s surprise attack ended with the Israeli army occupying Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, Syria’s Golan Heights, and for the West Bank of Jordan.”

Israeli Military leader, Moshe Dayan
Israeli Military leader, Moshe Dayan

“The most significant international pronouncement on the Arab- Israeli dispute after the Six Day War was U.N. Security Council Resolution 242. The preamble to the resolution emphasized the inadmissibility of the acquisition of the territory by force and the need to work for a just and lasting peace.”

1967 Khartoum Summit

“An Arab summit conference was held in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital, between  August 28 and September 2, 1967. It was the first meeting of the Arab leaders since their defeat in the June War. Israel’s leaders watched with keen anticipation to see what conclusions the Arab leaders would draw from their military defeat. The conference ended with the adoption of the famous three noes of Khartoum: no recognition, no negotiation, and no peace with Israel.”

6 comments

    • GRAZIE MILLE!! Again, thanks a million for your support and for this reblog. The Israeli-Palestine conflict has been percolating for so many years. It will take more blogs to cover this one subject. I do remember and miss the Israeli Prime Minister, Golda Meir.

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