aside PRIMER ON MIDDLE EAST, PART XXVI/ EGYPT

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The Muslim Brotherhood leader and former Egyptian President Mohammad Morsi had his death sentence confirmed by Egypt’s jurisprudence for ordering a mass prison break  of Muslim Brotherhood members during the 2011 revolution. President Morsi replaced President Hosni Mubarak who ruled for 30 years but was overthrown during the 2011 Arab uprising.

President Morsi assumed the Office of President in June of 2012, as Egypt’s first democratically elected leader by a narrow margin, only to be overthrown in a military coup a year later, in July 2013. During his service for one year, he was perceived by many as being more preoccupied with securing political control rather than effectively addressing economic and social problems. (The Iranians are accusing the US for orchestrating this coup as a CIA operation.)

egypt-camel

 The former army chief Abdel Fattah el-Sisi became the next Egyptian president(2013) following his victory in an Egyptian presidential election process. A recent 10/27/15 Guardian reports the following:

“Sisi was “elected” president in 2014 in a vote that did not meet the most minimal democratic standards. The parliamentary elections currently taking place in the absence of any real opposition have been shunned by the vast majority of Egyptian voters with record low turnout, the expectation that the new Egyptian parliament will be no more than a fig leaf for Sisi’s authoritarian regime.”

Egyptian Pres. Husni Mubarak displeased and gesturing while taba talks

Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak

A June , 2015 BBC News article answers the question, ” What’s happened to Hosni Mubarak?”

“Mr. Mubarak was charged with conspiring in the killing of hundreds of protesters during the 2011 uprising. He was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison in 2012, but the Court of Cassation overturned the conviction and ordered a retrial in 2013. The charge was dropped in November 2014, but in June 2015 a judge accepted an appeal from prosecutors and ordered a retrial. Mr Mubarak is residing in a military hospital in Cairo, where he had previously been detained.”

Nile River
Nile River

The following chronology on Egypt is from the 7/2/15 BBC News report:

circa 7000 BC – “Settlement of Nile Valley begins.”

circa 3000 BC – “Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt unite. Successive dynasties witness flourishing trade, prosperity and the development of great cultural traditions. Writing, including hieroglyphics, is used as an instrument of state. Construction of the pyramids – around 2,500 BC – is a formidable engineering achievement.”

669 BC – “Assyrians from Mesopotamia conquer and rule Egypt.”

525 BC – “Persian conquest.”

332 BC – “Alexander the Great, of ancient Macedonia, conquers Egypt, founds Alexandria. A Macedonian dynasty rules until 31 BC.”

Painting of Cleopatra
Painting of Cleopatra

31 BC – “Egypt comes under Roman rule; Queen Cleopatra commits suicide after Octavian’s army defeats her forces.”

33 AD – “Christianity comes to Egypt, and by 4th century has largely displaced Egyptian religion.”

642 – “Arab conquest of Egypt.”

969 – “Cairo established as capital.”

Egypt as part of Ottoman Empire
Egypt as part of Ottoman Empire

1250-1517 – “Mameluke (slave soldier) rule, characterized by great prosperity and well-ordered civic institutions.”

1517 – “Egypt absorbed into the Turkish Ottoman empire.”

1798 – “Napoleon Bonaparte’s forces invade but are repelled by the British and the Turks in 1801.”

“1805 – Ottoman Albanian commander Muhammad Ali establishes dynasty that rules until 1952, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire.”

Egypt's Suez Canal
Egypt’s Suez Canal

1859-69 – “Suez Canal built, but it and other infrastructure projects near-bankrupt Egypt and lead to gradual British takeover.”

1882 – “British troops defeat Egyptian army and take control of country.”

1914 – “Egypt formally becomes a British protectorate.”

King Faud I of Egypt
King Faud I of Egypt

Independence restored

1922 – “Fuad I becomes King and Egypt gains independence, although British influence remains significant until mid-1950s.”

1928 – “Muslim Brotherhood founded by Hassan al-Banna, who was killed in 1949. Campaigns to reorient Egypt and whole Muslim Middle East away from Western influence.”

1948 – “Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Syria attack the new state of Israel. Egyptian army’s poor performance increases unpopularity of King Farouk.”

1949 – “Committee of the Free Officers’ Movement formed to overthrow corrupt monarchy.”

1952 January – “At least 20 people are killed in anti-British riots in Cairo.”

KING FAROUK
KING FAROUK

1952 July – “Coup by the Free Officers’ Movement. Farouk abdicates in favour of his infant son Ahmed Fuad II.”

Rise of Nasser

1953 June – “Coup leader Muhammad Najib becomes president as Egypt is declared a republic.” (This is the same year that the US has admitted to CIA involvement in the overthrowing  Iranian leadership.)

1954 – “Fellow coup leader Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes prime minister and in 1956 president, ruling unchallenged until his death in 1970.”

1954 – “Evacuation Treaty signed. British forces, who began a gradual withdrawal under 1936 treaty finally leave Egypt.1955 – Prime Minister Nasser reorients Egypt away from West towards neutrality, buys arms from Communist Czechoslovakia to re-equip army after Western powers refuse to do so on terms acceptable to Egypt.”

1956 January – “Egypt and Britain relinquish control over Sudan, established at end of 19th century.”

Egypt's President Nasser
Egypt’s President Nasser

1956 July – “President Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal to fund the Aswan High Dam, after Britain and US withdraw financing.”

1956 October-November – “Invasion of Egypt by Britain, France and Israel over nationalization of Suez Canal fails through US opposition, greatly enhancing President Nasser’s standing at home and abroad.”

1958 – “President Nasser steps up campaign to promote pan-Arab unity, most visible signs of which were brief United Arab Republic unitary state including Syria (1958-61). He also supports friendly elements in Lebanese and North Yemen conflicts to little avail.”

Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood early leader, Hassan Al Banna
Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood early leader, Hassan Al Banna (Muslim Brotherhood was founded in 1928 and is the oldest Islamic organization.)

(Founded in 1928, the Muslim Brotherhood is Egypt’s oldest, largest Islamist organization)

1961-66 – “President Nasser adopts socialist policies, including nationalization of industry and an ambitious welfare program, combined with repression of Muslim Brotherhood and leftist opponents, in an unsuccessful attempt to boost the economy and the popularity of his government.”

1967 May – “Egypt expels UN buffer forces from Sinai and closes the Straits of Tiran to Israeli ships, then sign defense pact with Jordan. Israel interprets this as preparation for war.”

1967 June – “Israeli pre-emptive attack defeats Egypt, Jordan and Syria, leaving it in control of Sinai up to the Suez Canal and Egyptian-occupied Gaza. Emergency Law largely suspends civil rights. Remains in force with brief break in early 1980s until 2012.”

Photo of Israeli former PM Golda Maier and Egyptian former President Anwar Sadat
Photo of Israeli former PM Golda Maier and Egyptian former President Anwar Sadat

Sadat presidency

1970 September – “Nasser dies, having never recovered his leading role among Arab states after the 1967 defeat, and is succeeded by Vice-President, Anwar al-Sadat.”

1971 – “The Aswan High Dam is completed, with Soviet funding, and has a huge impact on irrigation, agriculture and industry in Egypt.”

Egypt's Aswan Dam
Egypt’s Aswan Dam

1972 – “President Sadat expels Soviet advisers and reorients Egypt towards the West, while launching an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to open the economy to market forces and foreign investment.”

1973 October – “Egypt and Syria go to war with Israel to reclaim land lost in 1967. Egypt begins negotiations for the return of Sinai after the war.”

SRAEL Menachem Begin AND ANWAR SADAT
SRAEL Menachem Begin AND ANWAR SADAT

1975 June – “The Suez Canal is re-opened for first time since 1967 war.”

1977 January – “Bread riots” in major cities against end to subsidies on basic foodstuffs under agreement with World Bank and International Monetary Fund.”

1977 October – “President Sadat visits Israel, beginning process that leads to 1979 peace treaty, return of occupied Sinai Peninsula, and Egypt’s suspension from Arab League until 1989. Egypt becomes major beneficiary of US financial aid.”

1981 October – “President Sadat assassinated by Islamist extremists month after clampdown on private press and opposition groups in wake of anti-government riots. Succeeded by Vice-President Hosni Mubarak.”

Mubarak presidency

1981 – “President Mubarak re-imposes State of Emergency, restricting political activity, freedom of expression and assembly.”

1986 – “Army deployed in Cairo to crush mutiny by Central Security paramilitary police.”

Egyptian former Presidents' Hosni Mubarak and Anwar Sadat
Egyptian former Presidents’ Hosni Mubarak and Anwar Sadat

1991 – “Egypt joins allied coalition to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait, and benefited from major multilateral loans and debt relief in return, allowing government to launch another attempt at liberalizing economy.”

1992-97 – “Gama’a al-Islamiyya Islamic Group begins five-year campaign of attacks on government and tourist targets, culminating in killing of 62 people at Luxor historic site in 1997.”

suez_warBritish and French attach Egypt to 'liberate' the Suez canal. Israel provided most of the manpower2005 May – “Referendum backs constitutional amendment allowing multiple candidates at presidential elections, after months of opposition protests.”

2005 July – “Scores of people are killed in bomb attacks in the Red Sea resort of Sharm al-Sheikh as Islamists resume terror attacks.”

2005 December – “Parliamentary polls end with clashes between police and supporters of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood, who win record 20% of seats by standing as independents.”

2006 April – “Bomb attacks in the Red Sea resort of Dahab kill more than 20 people.”

Coral and fish in the Red Sea.Egypt
Red Sea.Egypt

2006 November – “Egypt is one of at least six Arab countries developing domestic nuclear programs to diversify energy sources, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports.”

2008 April – “Military courts sentence 25 leading Muslim Brotherhood members to jail terms in crackdown targeting the organization’s funding. More than 800 arrested over a month. Brotherhood boycotted municipal elections after only 20 candidates allowed to stand.”

nasrmeshcap HEZBOLLAH SEC GEN HASSAN NASRALLAH AND HAMAS CHF KHALED MESHAAL RT

2009 February – “Leading opposition figure Ayman Nour freed after serving three years of five-year sentence on forgery charges that he said were politically motivated.”

2009 August – “Twenty-six members of an alleged cell of the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah go on trial in Cairo on charges of plotting attacks in Egypt and helping to send weapons to Hamas in Gaza.”

Fall of Mubarak

2010 February – “Former UN nuclear chief Mohammed ElBaradei returns to Egypt and, together with opposition figures and activists, forms a coalition for political change.”

2010 June – “Muslim Brotherhood fails to win any seats in elections to the Shura consultative upper house of parliament; alleges vote was rigged.”

2010 November – “Parliamentary polls, followed by protests against alleged vote rigging. Muslim Brotherhood fails to win a single seat, though it held a fifth of the places in the last parliament.”

EGYPT King Tut-tomb-replica-Egypt_
EGYPT King Tut-tomb-replica

2011 January – “Anti-government demonstrations, apparently encouraged by Tunisian street protests which prompted sudden departure of President Ben Ali.”

2011 February – “President Mubarak steps down and hands power to the army council. Goes on trial in August, charged with ordering the killing of demonstrators.”

2011 April-August – “Protests continue in Cairo’s Tahrir Square over slow pace of political change. Islamist groups come to the fore. Army finally disperses protestors in August.”

Head of Muslim Brotherhood
Head of Muslim Brotherhood

2011 December – “National unity government headed by new Prime Minister Kamal al-Ganzouri takes office.”

2012 January – “Islamist parties emerge as victors of drawn-out parliamentary elections.”

2012 May – “Military leaders announce the end of the state of emergency in place since Anwar al-Sadat’s assassination in 1981.”

Hamas leader, Khaled Meshaal (L) and Egyptian President Mohammad Morsi
Hamas leader, Khaled Meshaal (L) and Egyptian President Mohammad Morsi

Morsi presidency

2012 June – “Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohammed Morsi narrowly wins presidential election.

“Court sentences ex-President Mubarak to life in prison for complicity in the killing of protesters during the 2011 uprising.”

2012 August – “New prime minister Hisham Qandil appoints a cabinet dominated by figures from the outgoing government, technocrats and Islamists, but excluding secular and liberal forces.”

Khan el Khalili Bazaar in Cairo
Khan el Khalili Bazaar

“Islamist fighters attack an army outpost in Sinai, killing 16 soldiers, and mount a brief incursion into Israel, beginning new insurgency.”

Short-lived presidency

“President Morsi dismisses Defense Minister Tantawi and Chief of Staff Sami Annan and strips military of say in legislation.”

Tension over new constitution

2012 November – “President Morsi issues a decree stripping the judiciary of the right to challenge his decisions, but rescinds it in the face of popular protests.”

2012 December -” Islamist-dominated constituent assembly approves draft constitution that boosts the role of Islam and restricts freedom of speech and assembly. Public approve it in a referendum, prompting extensive protest by secular opposition leaders, Christians and women’s groups.”

CAIRO, EGYPT - JULY 03: An anti-President Mohammed Morsi poster is viewed. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed.(Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT –  As unrest spread, at least 23 people were killed.(Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

“Government paralysis weakens the currency and delays a $4.8bn (£3bn) IMF loan.”

2013 January – “More than 50 people are killed during days of violent street protests. Army chief Abdul Fattah al-Sisi warns that political strife is pushing the state to the brink of collapse.”

2013 June – “President Morsi appoints Islamist allies as regional leaders in 13 of Egypt’s 27 governorships, including member of a former Islamist armed group linked to a massacre of tourists in Luxor in 1997. Protests force Luxor governor out.”

Egyptian women shout slogans against President Mohamed Morsi as they join hundreds of thousands demonstrating against the Islamist President and the Muslim brotherhood. (Photo credit should read MAHMOUD KHALED/AFP/Getty Images)
Egyptian women against President Mohamed Morsi and the Muslim brotherhood. (Photo should read MAHMOUD KHALED/AFP/Getty Images)

Islamists ousted

2013 July – “Army overthrows President Morsi amid mass demonstrations calling on him to quit.”

2013 August – “Hundreds killed as security forces storm pro-Morsi protest camps in Cairo. Some 40 Coptic churches are destroyed in wave of attacks.”

2013 October – “US suspends large part of $1.3bn (£810m) in aid.”

2013 December – “Government declares Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist group after a bomb blast in Mansoura kills 12.”

2014 January – “New constitution bans parties based on religion.”

2014 May – “Former army chief wins presidential election.”

Egyptian President Abdul Fattah al-Sisi
Egyptian President Abdul Fattah al-Sisi

2014 June -” International outcry as three al-Jazeera journalists are jailed after being found guilty of spreading false news and supporting the banned Muslim Brotherhood. They are freed in February 2015.”

2014 November – “Sinai-based armed group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis pledges allegiance to extreme Islamic State movement, which controls parts of Syria and Iraq.”

2015 February – “Egyptian aircraft bomb Islamic State positions in eastern Libya after extremist group released video showing killing of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians. Egypt seeks UN mandate to sanction international intervention in Libya.”

2015 May – “Ousted President Morsi sentenced to death over 2011 mass breakout of Muslim Brotherhood prisoners. He was sentenced to 20 years in prison in April over arrest and torture of protesters during his 2012-2013 rule.”

2015 June – “Prosecutor-General Hisham Barakat and three members of the public killed in suspected Islamist car bombing in Cairo. 2015 July – Islamic State launches wave of attacks in North Sinai.”

A321 Airbus
A321 Airbus

2015 October 31- November 1– On 10/31/15, a Russian airline (Airbus 321, flight 9268) crashed over an Egyptian resort in the Sinai Peninsula. There are no survivors of the 217 passengers and 7 flight crew members. The Egyptian civil aviation authorities are stating that the crash is not due to terrorist activities.

The 11/1/15 Sunday Express article by Helen Barnett and Nick Gutteridge is reporting that ISIS is claiming responsibility for the downed Russian airline while providing a video as proof. The following are some excerpts:

“Egyptian Prime Minister Sherif Ismail visited the scene yesterday afternoon, at one point being shown the plane’s black box recorder by rescue teams.”

Egypt's Prime Minister Sherif Ismail (R) listens to rescue workers (Applemark)
Egypt’s Prime Minister Sherif Ismail (R) listens to rescue workers (Applemark)

“It comes as ISIS jihadis released a dramatic video, which could prove the blood-thirsty terrorists did shoot down the doomed airliner. 

“Chilling footage shows the Airbus A-321 jet as it falls through the air, before it appears to explode and engulfs into a ball of smoke and flames.”

“Earlier today Terror Monitor, an online terrorist monitoring organization, said it had received a statement from Islamic State militants claiming responsibility for the attack.”

Egyptian Prime Minister Sherif Ismail
Prime Minister Sherif Ismail

The 11/1/15 Guardian is reporting the following:

“Russian aviation regulator Rosaviatsia said it has not yet found any reason to blame the crash of the Russian airliner in Egypt on a technical failure, an error by the crew or external actions, RIA Novosti reports.”

“Until there is reliable evidence about the circumstances of what happened, there is no sense in putting forward and discussing any versions.”

For now, airlines will NOT be flying over the Sinai Peninsula.

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