aside The West Bank Story, Part VIII/ Israeli-Palestine Conflict Timeline From 1947-2000

On 8/28/2001, USA Today published the following Israeli-Palestinian Conflict timeline of major events from 1947-2000:

<b>Caption from LIFE.</b> Proclamation of Nationhood is read by Israel's Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. Around him are members of the provisional government, including Foreign Minister Moshe Shertok (third from right). Labor Minister Moshe Ben Tov (extreme right) wears sport shirt. Portrait above is of Theodor Herzl, Zionism's founder
Proclamation of Nationhood is read by Israel’s PM David Ben-Gurion.

War for Israeli independence, 1947-1949

“On Nov. 29, 1947, the United Nations decides to partition Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state. Mounting violence leads to the first Arab-Israeli war in early 1948, when the British withdraw from the region. Jewish forces hold their ground and declare Israeli statehood on May 14, 1948. Neighboring Arab nations, including Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt and then-Transjordan, lend support to the Palestinians. The Egyptians are the last to seek an end to hostilities; an armistice is reached in January 1949.”Image result for photo of suez canal 1956

Suez crisis, 1956

Israeli leadership grows increasingly weary of cross-border attacks from the Egyptian-controlled Gaza Strip as well as Egypt’s attempts to block Israeli shipping in the Suez Canal and Gulf of Aqaba. Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser’s denial of Israel’s right to exist and attempts to thwart Western peace initiatives convince the West that Nasser is not an ally. The United States withdraws aid to Egypt for the Aswan Dam Project, infuriating Nasser. He nationalizes the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956.

Britain, which owns nearly half of the Suez Canal Company, seeks to prevent the nationalization by joining with France and Israel to gain control of the waterway. A plan is devised in which Israel attacks the Sinai Peninsula on Oct. 29, allowing Britain and France to condemn the fighting and demand that both sides withdraw from the region. When Nasser refuses, Britain and France attack. The Soviet Union threatens to use nuclear power in the region to repel the West. The United States demands a cease-fire, which takes effect in November 1956. A U.N. force occupies the area in March 1957 and reopens the canal on April 24, 1957. The crisis solidifies the framework of the Cold War in the Middle East.”Image result for photo of 1967 six day war

Six-Day War, June 5-10, 1967

“The U.N. force is able to prevent major Arab invasions of Israel until the summer of 1967, when Egyptian forces gather in Sinai and Nasser orders the international troops to leave. Egypt also blocks Israeli ships in the Gulf of Aqaba. In the U.S., President Johnson tries but fails to secure peace and reopen the gulf. Israel plans pre-emptive strikes June 5 against Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Iraq — nations that had mobilized for war — while moving troops into the Sinai Peninsula and the canal region. Jordan launches an offensive in Jerusalem on June 5. Israeli defenses retaliate and capture all of East Jerusalem and the West Bank within three days. Israel then focuses on the Syrian offensive, pushing Syria’s troops from the Golan Heights by June 10, when a U.N. cease-fire takes effect. The victory provides Israel with a buffer zone — the Sinai, Gaza, East Jerusalem, West Bank and Golan — between it and its Arab neighbors.”Related image

Yom Kippur War, Oct. 6-24, 1973

“Arab nations warn Israel that they will not accept Israeli occupation of lands lost in 1967. After Egypt’s Nasser was succeeded by Anwar Sadat, Sadat prepares his country for war, including a contract with the Soviets for more sophisticated weaponry. Sadat, allied with President Hafez Assad of Syria, attacks Israel on Oct. 6, 1973 — on Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement. Israel fights back and gains back most of the ground lost in the initial attack. Fighting continues for 18 days, when the war ends again under U.N. auspices. Later agreements give Egypt control of some land along the Suez Canal and Syria some control around the Golan Heights.”

Image result for photos of camp david accord

Camp David Accords, 1978-1979 

” Egyptian and Israeli leaders meet at Camp David with President Carter in 1978 to discuss a treaty in which Egypt would regain full control of the Sinai Peninsula. The treaty is signed on March 26, 1979, lending hope to a future of peace in the region.”

Image result for photo of Israeli invasion of Lebanon, 1982Israeli invasion of Lebanon, 1982

“The treaty with Egypt leads to a “cold” peace, but Israel must now focus on the Palestinian refugees living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Attacks by the Palestine Liberation Organization from the Lebanon border add to the tensions. In June 1982, Israel invades Lebanon. Israeli troops reach Beirut, cornering the PLO and Syrian fighters. The United States intervenes, and a force of U.S. and Western European troops help with the PLO and Syrian evacuation. Months later Israel retakes Beirut, and hundreds of Palestinian guerrillas are killed. The war ends in May 1983, and Israel gradually withdraws troops.”Image result for photo of hamas

Intifada, Hamas and Hezbollah, mid- to late 1980s

“Palestinian refugees in the occupied territories demand statehood and the right to self-determination. Expanding Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Israel’s attack on Lebanon gives rise to three security threats — the intifada (or uprising) of Palestinians in the occupied territories; Hezbollah (Party of God), a militia aimed at ending Israel’s control of southern Lebanon; and Hamas, an ultra-religious group that seeks to liberate Palestine according to the laws of Islam. Hamas often resorts to the use of violence to achieve political gains during the intifada. The intifada starts with small-scale riots and demonstrations. Israel responds by closing Palestinian schools and businesses as well as access to Israel. Within the first year of the uprising, about 300 Palestinians and 50 Israelis are killed.”

Image result for photo of yasser arafatPalestinian statehood declared, 1988

“Yasser Arafat seeks sole leadership of the Palestinian people and proves a prudent diplomat. Arafat declares Palestinian statehood in November 1988 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Many nations, including the Soviet Union and Egypt, respond with recognition of the Palestinian government, with Arafat as its leader. The United States refuses to recognize statehood but does open dialogue with Arafat.”

Related imageOslo Accords, 1993

“Failed peace talks in Madrid in 1991 provide the framework for talks in Oslo, Norway, in 1993. Both sides agree to a Declaration of Principles, which is signed in Washington on Sept. 13, 1993. The accords provide for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Both sides formally recognized one another; Arafat agrees to Israel’s right to exist, and Israel accepts the Palestinians’ right to self-determination. Two years later, leaders meet again at the White House and sign the Interim Agreement, which allows for the next stage in Palestinian autonomy and control of some cities in the occupied zone.”

Wye Accords, 1998

“In 1998, President Clinton hosts Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in talks at Way Mills, Md. The summit ends with a land-for-security deal on Oct. 23, 1998. Arafat agrees to crack down on terrorism, and Israel agrees to withdraw from a percentage of occupied land. Palestinians agree to withdraw elements of its charter that are hostile to Israel, and both sides agree to a third phase of negotiations. Within two months, Netanyahu accuses the Palestinians of failing to honor security commitments and steps away from the deal.”Image result for photo of wye accords 1998

“Labor Party Leader Ehud Barak campaigns for Israeli prime minister, guaranteeing a move forward toward peace. He is elected and soon signs a deal with Arafat to implement part of the Wye Accords and sets a deadline of Sept. 13, 2000, for a final treaty.”

Camp David, 2000

“Tensions mount as the September deadline approaches with no treaty in sight. Clinton begins a last-ditch peace effort by hosting Arafat and Barak at Camp David. The summit lasts two weeks, but persistent issues, such as the status of Jerusalem and the relocation of Jewish settlers and Palestinian refugees, block an agreement.”

Palestinian uprising, September 2000

“Palestinians remain frustrated by the lack of a final peace treaty. As tensions mount, Israel’s Likud Party leader Ariel Sharon, a hard-line conservative, visits a disputed holy site in Jerusalem on 8/28/ 2000, sparking demonstrations.. followed by months of violence. Hamas launches several suicide bombing attacks, including one at a Tel Aviv disco that kills 23.”